The Essence of Socialism is Human

Mansoor Hekmat interpreted Marx’s thoughts to argue that social production and consciousness are products of human action, not precursors to existence. He asserted that revolutions, like the French, increase consciousness and transform society. Social arrangements like capitalism or socialism, while consciously constructed, do not define humanity. Hekmat emphasized that true socialism centers on returning agency to people, transcending class and identity, making it clear that the essence of socialism is human-focused, aiming for a society where humanity, not systemic structures, takes precedence.